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The Internet of Things, or IoT, refers to the billions of physical objects linked to the internet and collecting and exchanging data throughout the world. It's now feasible to transform everything, from a pill to a jet, into a component of the Internet of Things, thanks to the advent of super-cheap computer chips and the widespread availability of wireless networks.
The IoT network devices are bringing the digital and physical worlds together to make the world around us smarter and more responsive. Through an IoT platform, there are several ways of exchanging data between IoT sensors and a web / mobile application. Each has its own set of benefits and drawbacks. There is no such thing as a universal answer.
IoT is difficult to dismiss since it offers immense potential for solving real-world issues. In addition, businesses have identified IoT networks as a valuable addition to their centers of excellence. IoT POCs are circulating throughout the manufacturing, FMCG, healthcare, and automobile industries, in addition to technology organizations. The IoT investment is expected to reach $1 billion at the current rate.
By 2023, it will have grown to a value of USD 1 trillion, making it one of the fastest-growing technologies in history. However, it is also critical to recognize that the Internet of Things is intrinsically complex. The majority of IoT project concepts never get off the ground or fail at the implementation stage. According to Beecham Research's extensive results, 74% of IoT initiatives fail at some point.
The strategy roadmap for building an IoT product from the ground up and the role of tech partners are all detailed in the following guide.
How Does The IoT Network Work?
The Internet of Things is a huge network of things. These gadgets send and receive massive volumes of data on how they work and the information they hold. This information is transferred to enormous cloud servers all over the world. Based on the data obtained, the cloud delivers the necessary instructions. Sensors are integrated into IoT devices. These sensors have the ability to detect their environment. The information is saved in some kind of data by the devices. Mobile phones, coffee makers, microwaves, geysers, fire alarms, air conditioners, and automobiles are examples of these gadgets.
How Does The IoT Network Work
The sensors in these gadgets continuously output data about their surroundings as well as information about how they perform. The Internet of Things (IoT) acts as a platform for dumping all of the data generated by these devices.
Cloud servers and huge databases are part of the IoT platform. The data is acted upon by the IoT platform. The data is integrated and processed by it. Furthermore, the platform extensively analyses the data to acquire critical facts. Following that, the platform sends back instructions depending on the information supplied.
Finally, the aggregation is shared with other devices in order to improve future performance. It's also done to make the user experience better.
1. Sensors or Devices
These gadgets have a physical connection to the outside world. They take data from external changes and store it. A sensor detects and records changes in the surrounding environment. Sensors are particularly valuable in IoT applications because of this feature.
The data collected by sensors is processed by cloud servers. However, they will need a platform to do so. All IoT devices in any particular IoT ecosystem, including sensors, routers, gateways, user apps, and platforms, are connected through connectivity. Because connection gives you control over the whole IoT system, it's critical to choose the correct sort of communication method. Wifi, Bluetooth, Zigbee, and cellular networks like LTE and 5G all provide connections to send enormous volumes of data.
3. Information processing
After all of the data has been transmitted to the platform, functions are run on it to process it and return the required outputs. To put it another way, data analysis is required. In IoT technology, this is the most crucial phase. To get superior findings, the analysis must be completed quickly.
4. User Interface (UI)
This is the last step. This stage has direct contact with the user and generates the output that the user sees on their screen. Every IoT device has a unique interface since each device has a particular task or goal to achieve.
What Is The Process Of Developing An IoT Network?
Most IoT devices only send and receive a small amount of data. The great bulk of traffic comes in the form of multiple-line text transfers comprising sensor measurements, coordinates, toggle switch settings, or simple instructions, to mention a few. As a result, very low bandwidth is required at the network's access layer. The sheer quantity of linked devices is one of the primary factors that makes network architecture difficult for IoT. Whereas standard LAN segments may have tens or hundreds of devices, IoT applications might quickly demand thousands or even millions of devices on a single network.
Although low bandwidth utilization by individual devices is not a concern at the network's access layer, the problem becomes more widespread as the network moves toward the distribution and, in particular, the core layer.
In terms of Layer 2 and Layer 3 addressing the core network, the potentially huge number of IoT devices in a single network segment places a huge demand on network resources. ARP tables and MAC address tables may grow rather large. This problem can be approached in a number of ways. What will be executed in each scenario is determined by a number of criteria, one of which is cost. It's considerably easier to construct a new network to support IoT if it's being built from the ground up.
Employ Core Network Technology With Adequate Resources.
Using core IoT-based network technology with the requisite capacity and resources, such as CPU power and memory, to support the massive MAC address and ARP tables required for a high number of IoT devices per subnet is one of the simplest and most cost-effective options. This is especially important when dealing with a network that has just undergone an upgrade that does not account for such traffic requirements. This strategy can significantly reduce the cost of substantial network reengineering. This will not only lengthen the network's life, but it will also make corporate executives pleased since they won't have to invest a lot more money to accommodate IoT.
Configure Routing As Near To The Access Layer As Feasible
This is the way to go if you're starting from scratch with a fresh network. To minimize broadcast storms and maximize efficiency, networking professionals have learned from Network Design 101 that broadcast domains should be kept modest. This entails rerouting traffic from the core network to the distribution network, and even to the distribution-access network boundary. The end result may be a more complicated IP addressing method, but it will result in a far more efficient network.
Make Use Of Ipv6 Addressing.
IPv6 was designed with huge numbers of devices in mind, such as those used in IoT applications. Not only does IPv6 appear to have an endless supply of addresses, but it also works in a way that allows for many more endpoints per subnet. Broadcast storms are less of a worry now that IPv6 has eliminated broadcast. A network segment's size can be increased by a factor of 10 without affecting network operation. This results in fewer subnets with a greater number of devices per subnet, making management easier and more efficient.
Types Of Wireless Network
The communication layer, also known as the network layer, is in charge of connecting the IoT system to the rest of the system using network technologies to enable accurate and safe data flow. This layer connects all of the computers in the building to the internet, allowing them to communicate via the Internet Protocol (IP).
Types Of Wireless Network
Let’s understand which types of wireless networks make the IoT run and communicate with each other seamlessly.
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology that sends tiny quantities of data from an RFID tag to a reader over a short distance using radio waves. Technology has aided a big change in retail and logistics up to this point.
Businesses may track their inventory and assets in real-time by attaching RFID tags to a variety of items and equipment, allowing for better stock and production planning as well as improved supply chain management. RFID is entrenched in the retail industry, allowing new IoT applications such as smart shelves, self-checkout, and smart mirrors, in addition to expanding IoT adoption.
Sensors in IoT devices assess certain characteristics of the world around them, such as location, temperature, humidity, light levels, movement, handling, movement speed, and other environmental parameters. RFID chips, smart gadgets, and mobile sensors are just a few examples of IoT devices.
Using GPS and other technologies, Internet of Things devices can track and authenticate items and shipments in the supply chain. They can also keep track of product storage conditions, which helps with quality control across the supply chain.
RFID chips are used to make this possible. It's a lot easier to figure out where items are, how they're stored, and when they'll arrive at a certain area. It is considerably easier to estimate how items will move if the pace of movement and traffic flow of products are tracked.
IoT-based network technology has aided a big change in retail and logistics up to this point. Businesses may track their inventory and assets in real-time by attaching RFID tags to a variety of items and equipment, allowing for better stock and production planning as well as improved supply chain management. RFID is entrenched in the retail industry, allowing new IoT applications such as smart shelves, self-checkout, and smart mirrors, in addition to expanding IoT adoption.
Cellular (2G, 3G, 4G, and 5G)
Cellular networks employ the same mobile networks as smartphones to allow IoT devices to communicate. These networks weren't always thought to be the greatest choice for IoT devices because they were initially built for power-hungry devices like smartphones. The cellular sector eventually created other technologies that were more suited to IoT use cases. This form of a wireless network is highly common nowadays, and it is regarded as a safe and trustworthy means of IoT communication. In most parts of the United States, cell service is available, and this sort of network spans a broad region.
Cell connectivity isn't always accessible in the locations where monitoring sensors are most needed, such as within utility closets, elevator shafts, and basements. (For certain sites, another IoT wireless technology class, LPWAN, would be a better choice.) Even while the cellular connectivity is currently less expensive and uses less power than previous telecom standards, cellular-connected IoT devices still use a lot more electricity and energy than other wireless networks.
LTE-M and Narrowband IoT are two cellular IoT wireless technologies that are now competing for domination (NB-IoT). If you're ready to pay the price and your use case demands minimal power, LTE-M is an excellent alternative for IoT connectivity. Furthermore, LTE-M networks are currently in existence in the United States, so you may start using this choice right away. Although NB-IoT is less expensive and consumes less battery power than LTE-M, there isn't currently enough coverage to reliably implement an NB-IoT system.
While cellular networks are not suitable for the bulk of IoT applications based on battery-operated sensor networks, they are appropriate for specialized use cases such as linked automobiles or fleet management in transportation and logistics. In-car infotainment, traffic routing, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), as well as fleet telematics and tracking services, may all rely on cellular connectivity's ubiquitous and high bandwidth.
The future of autonomous cars and augmented reality will be cellular next-generation 5G, which will offer high-speed mobility and ultra-low latency. In the future, 5G is projected to allow for real-time video surveillance for public safety, real-time mobile distribution of medical data sets for linked health, and a variety of time-sensitive industrial automation applications.
LPWAN (Lora, sigFox)
LPWAN-enabled IoT devices provide short packets of data rarely and over vast distances. The early limitations of cellular communication prompted the development of this form of wireless network technology. LPWAN supporters argue that it has a longer range than WiFi and Bluetooth while consuming less power than cellular. Sigfox created France's first low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) network and is credited with propelling it forward (despite the fact that Sigfox never took off in the U.S.).
LoRaWAN (long range wireless area network), which operates on the LoRa (long range) communication network, is a well-known and widely used IoT network protocol in this category. Low power consumption (for longer battery life) and comparatively low-cost chipsets are two of LoRaWAN's advantages for IoT devices.
Furthermore, under the correct circumstances, a single long-range network base station or gateway may provide coverage to a very vast area—a few kilometers in congested urban areas and up to 15–30 kilometers in rural regions.
While power consumption is a key concern for cellular-based, licensed LPWANs, unlicensed solutions are primarily concerned with Quality-of-Service and scalability. Standardization is another element to consider if you want to assure long-term stability, security, and interoperability. This may link a wide range of IoT sensors, allowing for a variety of applications ranging from asset tracking, environmental monitoring, and building management to occupancy detection and consumables monitoring. LPWANs, on the other hand, can only deliver tiny blocks of data at a slow rate, making them better suited to applications that don't demand a lot of bandwidth or aren't time-sensitive.
The connection configuration of mesh networks—how the components communicate with one another—is the best way to characterize them. In mesh networks, all of the sensor nodes work together to share data so that it may reach the gateway. (In contrast, in a star topology, all sensor nodes connect to a single hub.)
One example of an IoT wireless network technology is Zigbee. Mesh networks have a short-range and may require additional sensors or the use of repeaters to get the coverage your application requires. Furthermore, the nature of how these networks interact might result in significant power consumption, particularly if fast messaging is required, as in a smart lighting application. (IoT apps that merely require periodic data updates require less power.)
Mesh networks, on the other hand, are somewhat dependable, capable of finding the fastest and most reliable pathways to transport data, and simple to set up, making them a popular choice for in-building use.
When compared to LPWAN, the Mesh protocol offers better data throughput but lower power efficiency owing to the mesh design.
Zigbee and related mesh protocols (e.g. Z-Wave, Thread, etc.) are best suited for medium-range IoT applications with an equitable distribution of nodes in close vicinity. Typically, the Mesh protocol is a great complement to Wi-Fi for many home automation use cases, including home sensor networks, such as smart lighting, HVAC controls, security, and energy management.
Because WiFi is so common in both industrial and residential settings, everyone knows what it is. WiFi, except for a few applications such as digital signs and security cameras, is not a viable alternative for IoT connections.
The WiFi network's application in IoT network devices is limited, owing to its short-range, high power consumption, and lack of scalability. WiFi HaLow provides greater range and lower power consumption. However, because of the network's inadequate security, industries have been less supportive of its usage.
The IoT's main constraints in terms of coverage, scalability, and power consumption keep it from becoming widely used.
Wi-Fi is typically not a viable choice for large circuits of rechargeable batteries IoT sensors, particularly in manufacturing IoT and smart building applications, due to its high energy consumption. Instead, it refers to providing connectivity that can be easily linked to a power outlet, such as smart home appliances, digital signs, and security cameras.
BLE is a low-power IoT communication technology that is primarily intended for battery-powered devices. Low cost, availability of cellphones (with many operating systems), and ease of implementation are all advantages of this technology. BLE utilizes 2.4 GHz radio frequencies but a simpler modulation scheme than traditional Bluetooth. BLE is mostly used in smart residential and commercial buildings, as well as healthcare applications, for location services.
Bluetooth Low-Energy was later created to meet small-scale Consumer IoT applications, and it was optimized for power consumption.
BLE-enabled devices are generally used in combination with electronic devices, such as smartphones, which act as a hub for data transfer to the cloud. BLE is now widely used in Fitness and medical wearables (such as smartwatches, glucose meters, and pulse oximeters) as well as Smart Home devices (such as door locks), allowing data to be easily transferred to and viewed on smartphones.
Microchips have been used as a standard for decades, and pet monitoring as a type of asset tracking is nothing new. However, with ubiquitous internet access, tracking lost dogs in real-time is now possible.
Traditional cellular networks appear to be the ideal answer for tracking dogs on the surface, as these networks will keep track of the animal's whereabouts even after they leave home.
The Top 4 Business Benefits Of IoT Network Technology Devices
The Top 4 Business Benefits Of IoT Network Technology Devices
1. Better Life Quality
There are several occasions when the combination of big data and IoT may improve people's lives. Those who concentrate primarily on business do not see the big picture or the true value of the IoT. Smart technologies in medicine, for example, can truly save lives. Smart blood pressure monitors that transmit data in real-time, as well as smart tablets that may be consumed and transmit data as they pass through the gastrointestinal tract, are both excellent instances of how networked gadgets can genuinely assist people.
2. Enhanced Business Productivity
The IoT wireless network such as Google and Amazon's voice-activated devices can boost corporate and industrial production and efficiency. Improved data collection, for example, through a network of internet-connected devices, can give very precise data that can be examined and used by the company to improve customer service or business operations.
3. Analytical Prediction Gratitude to Big Data Collection
Big data has been a phrase for a while, and it was certainly popular before the Internet of Things took off. There are Internet-connected gadgets that collect data, whether it's inventory or client behavior. All of this information goes back into the system, increasing efficiency.
Big data is used to create new possibilities and forecast anything from consumer behavior to stock control. As smart gadgets become increasingly common in homes and schools, more data is collected and predictive approaches may be used to enhance our lives.
4.Remote Monitoring of Health
Medical advancements have allowed more individuals to live longer lives, but technology is assisting in pushing these limits even further. IoT devices may be extremely beneficial in a world where communication is critical and early detection is critical.
Consider a health bracelet with an embedded monitoring system that can, for example, track blood sugar levels. This diabetes wristband with an internet connection may track blood sugar levels and send messages to other family members and even medical officials.
Speak with IoT professionals to see how your company may benefit from IoT asset tracking.
The application cases presented in this paper are simply a sliver of what is possible. As your company invests in IoT network technology and technology progresses, the possibilities afforded by IoT asset monitoring will expand significantly.
If your organization is considering investing in IoT, contact the experts at Intuz IoT development company to learn more about how the technology might help your specific business needs.